Bruce Beutler studied
medicine at the University of Chicago.
Early in his career he isolated mouse TNF, and discovered its
inflammatory properties. Later he
developed TNF inhibitor proteins that found widespread use in clinical
medicine. Using genetics, and taking the
TNF response as a biological endpoint, he then identified Toll-like receptor 4
as the mammalian sensor of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
These groundbreaking studies of innate immune
sensing and response earned Beutler the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine (shared with J. Hoffmann and R. Steinman). Beutler directs the Center for the Genetics
of Host Defense, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.